Facial Gender Confirmation Surgery: A Protocol for Diagnosis, Surgical Planning, and Postoperative Management

Plast Reconstr Surg. 2020 Apr;145(4):818e-828e. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000006686.


During the past 10 years, academic publications that address facial feminization surgery have largely examined the technical aspects of the different surgical procedures involved and clinical evaluations of postoperative results. This Special Topic article focuses on aspects that are underdeveloped to date but useful with regard to taking the correct therapeutic approach to transgender patients who are candidates for facial gender confirmation surgery. The authors propose a protocolized sequence, from the clinical evaluation to the postoperative period, based on a sample size of more than 1300 trans feminine patients, offering facial gender confirmation surgery specialists standardized guidelines to handle their patients' needs in a way that is both objective and reproducible.

MeSH terms

  • Clinical Protocols*
  • Face / surgery*
  • Female
  • Femininity
  • Gender Dysphoria / diagnosis
  • Gender Dysphoria / psychology
  • Gender Dysphoria / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Masculinity
  • Patient Care Planning / standards
  • Patient Selection
  • Postoperative Care / methods
  • Postoperative Care / standards
  • Postoperative Period
  • Sex Reassignment Surgery / methods*
  • Sex Reassignment Surgery / psychology
  • Sex Reassignment Surgery / standards
  • Transgender Persons / psychology*
  • Treatment Outcome