Effects of periodontal disease on glycemic control, complications, and incidence of diabetes mellitus

Periodontol 2000. 2020 Jun;83(1):59-65. doi: 10.1111/prd.12271.


Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders with high mortality and morbidity associated with complications such as cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and stroke. The prevalence of diabetes is 9.4% in US adults, and prevalence increases markedly with age, with 1 in 4 adults aged ≥65 years affected by diabetes. The estimated number of adults with type 2 diabetes globally almost tripled between 2002 and 2017, reflecting increases seen in the USA and elsewhere. This increase raises concerns about the increased morbidity and mortality associated with the complications of diabetes, including periodontal disease and tooth loss. There is a reciprocal adverse relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease, with diabetes as a major risk factor for periodontal disease, and in those patients with diabetes who also have periodontal disease then there are adverse effects on glycemic control and complications such as cardiovascular disease and end stage renal disease. In this review, those studies detailing the adverse effects of periodontal disease and diabetes will be discussed. Also, evidence is accumulating that periodontitis may play a role in increasing the incidence of new cases of type 2 diabetes, and possibly gestational diabetes. Of course, these studies need to be expanded to better understand the effects of periodontitis on diabetes glycemic control, complications, prediabetes, and the incidence of new cases. However, given the tremendous burden of diabetes on society, the dental profession should be proactive in preventing and treating periodontal disease, not only to preserve the dentition, but also to minimize the adverse effects of periodontitis on diabetes and its complications.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose
  • Diabetes Complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Periodontal Diseases*


  • Blood Glucose