Gender differences in audio-vestibular disorders

Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2020 Jan-Dec:34:2058738420929174. doi: 10.1177/2058738420929174.


In the last years, the attention to the role of gender in physiopathology and pharmacology of diseases in several medical disciplines is rising; however, the data on the relationship between gender and audio-vestibular disorders are still inconclusive and sometimes confusing. With this letter to the editor, we would like to review the role of gender in audio-vestibular disorders. Literature data show that anatomic variances of the inner ear do exist in men and women and that the different physiology and/or hormonal influence between genders could produce different clinical outcome of routine audiological and vestibular tests. Beyond the epidemiological gender-related differences, the clinical data suggest that the gender has a potential role as an etiopathogenetic factor in audio-vestibular disorders and it is probably responsible for the different clinical features observed between male and female subjects.

Keywords: audiology; cochlea; gender; gender differences; inner ear; sensorineural hearing loss; sex; vestibule.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Auditory Pathways / anatomy & histology
  • Auditory Pathways / pathology
  • Ear, Inner / anatomy & histology
  • Ear, Inner / pathology
  • Female
  • Hearing Disorders / epidemiology
  • Hearing Disorders / pathology*
  • Hearing Loss, Sensorineural / epidemiology
  • Hearing Loss, Sensorineural / pathology
  • Hormones / physiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Sex Characteristics*
  • Sex Factors
  • Vestibular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Vestibular Diseases / pathology*


  • Hormones