Oculoplastic surgical simulation using goat sockets

Orbit. 2022 Jun;41(3):292-296. doi: 10.1080/01676830.2021.1872091. Epub 2021 Jan 11.


Purpose: To describe a reproducible and easily available goat socket model for training of various oculoplastic operations, and to evaluate trainees' perception of this training model in terms of their learning progress and satisfaction.

Methods: Goat sockets including orbital rim and eye with eyelids were harvested in form of a split-head model. Ophthalmology residents underwent individual surgical training using the goat socket model, supervised by an oculoplastic attending. Participants completed a questionnaire in form of a 5-point Likert Scale to evaluate their learning progress and satisfaction.

Outcome measures: Types of oculoplastic operations performed using the goat socket models, and participants' rating of their learning progress and satisfaction were reported.

Results: A wide range of oculoplastic operations including both eyelid and orbital operations could be simulated because of similarities of the goat eye model to the human eye anatomy. Fifteen ophthalmic trainees participated in surgical training using the goat eye model. All (100%) participants agreed that surgical simulation using the goat socket model increased their skills in surgical instrumentation and carrying out surgical steps, and their confidence in operating on patients. Most (87%) agreed the model resembled reasonably well compared to surgeries in human, and 93% would recommend training with the model to fellow resident ophthalmologists before operating on human patients.

Conclusions: Oculoplastic surgical training using goat sockets is simple, readily available, and inexpensive. Trainee users showed promising feedback and positive learning progress using the goat socket model.

Keywords: Eyelid; orbit; surgical simulation.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Clinical Competence
  • Eyelids* / surgery
  • Goats*
  • Humans
  • Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures
  • Orbit / surgery