Aims: The purpose of this study is to examine the adductus impact on the second metatarsal by the nonosteotomy nonarthrodesis syndesmosis procedure for the hallux valgus deformity correction, and how it would affect the mechanical function of the forefoot in walking. For correcting the metatarsus primus varus deformity of hallux valgus feet, the syndesmosis procedure binds first metatarsal to the second metatarsal with intermetatarsal cerclage sutures.
Methods: We reviewed clinical records of a single surgical practice from its entire 2014 calendar year. In total, 71 patients (121 surgical feet) qualified for the study with a mean follow-up of 20.3 months (SD 6.2). We measured their metatarsus adductus angle with the Sgarlato's method (SMAA), and the intermetatarsal angle (IMA) and metatarsophalangeal angle (MPA) with Hardy's mid axial method. We also assessed their American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) clinical scale score, and photographic and pedobarographic images for clinical function results.
Results: SMAA increased from preoperative 15.9° (SD 4.9°) to 17.2° (5.0°) (p < 0.001). IMA and MPA corrected from 14.6° (SD 3.3°) and 31.9° (SD 8.0°) to 7.2° (SD 2.2°) and 18.8° (SD 6.4°) (p < 0.001), respectively. AOFAS score improved from 66.8 (SD 12.0) to 96.1 (SD 8.0) points (p < 0.001). Overall, 98% (119/121) of feet with preoperative plantar calluses had them disappeared or noticeably subsided, and 93% (113/121) of feet demonstrated pedobarographic medialization of forefoot force in walking. We reported all complications.
Conclusion: This study, for the first time, reported the previously unknown metatarsus adductus side-effect of the syndesmosis procedure. However, it did not compromise function restoration of the forefoot by evidence of our patients' plantar callus and pedobarographic findings. Level of Clinical Evidence: III Cite this article: Bone Jt Open 2021;2(3):174-180.
Keywords: Bunion; Hallux valgus; Metatarsus adductus; Metatarsus primus varus; Syndesmosis procedure.