Background: Percutaneous insertion of a peritoneal dialysis catheter (PDc) is an alternative to open surgical techniques, and the anatomical characteristics of the abdominal wall may predict PDc dysfunction. We evaluated the role of rectus abdominis muscle (RAM) thickness as a predictor of PDc dysfunction.
Materials and methods: A prospective cohort of emergency-start PD patients (EmPD) who had their first percutaneous PDc insertion were included. PDc failure was defined as the removal of a PDc due to mechanical failure within the first 30 PD fluid exchanges. Clinical variables were recorded. The skin to parietal peritoneum depth and RAM thickness were determined by abdominal ultrasound. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were developed to test associations between clinical parameters and PDc dysfunction.
Results: Over 6 months, 119 patients underwent PDc insertion; 73 (61.3%) were males, with a mean age of 46.0 ± 17.8 years. The mean skin-to-peritoneum depth was 2.5 ± 1.0 cm, the RAM thickness was 0.91 ± 0.3 cm, and catheter implantation was successful in 116 (97.4%) patients. Insertion failed in 3 (2.5%) cases, and 30 (25.8%) patients presented with catheter dysfunction. Univariate analysis indicated that RAM thickness ≥ 1.0 cm, skin-to-peritoneum depth > 2.88 cm, abdominal waist > 92.5 cm, and skin-to-RAM fascia distance > 2.3 cm were associated with PDc dysfunction; in multivariate logistic regression analysis, only greater RAM thickness remained a significant predictor (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.38 - 1.88, p < 0.001).
Conclusion: In EmPD patients, RAM thickness is associated with PDc dysfunction and could aid in identifying patients at risk for PDc dysfunction in emergency settings. Additional adequately powered studies are needed to confirm our findings.