Meniscal Tears, Posterolateral and Posteromedial Corner Injuries, Increased Coronal Plane, and Increased Sagittal Plane Tibial Slope All Influence Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Related Knee Kinematics and Increase Forces on the Native and Reconstructed Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A Systematic Review of Cadaveric Studies

Arthroscopy. 2022 May;38(5):1664-1688.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2021.11.044. Epub 2021 Dec 7.


Purpose: To obtain a comprehensive list of pathologies that cause increased anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) forces and pathologic knee kinematics to evaluate for in both primary and revision ACL reconstruction to decrease the risk of subsequent graft overload.

Methods: An electronic search was performed in the Embase and MEDLINE databases for the period between January 1, 1990, and December 10, 2020. All articles investigating medial and lateral meniscal injury, (postero)lateral corner injury, (postero)medial corner/medial collateral ligament injury, valgus alignment, varus alignment, and tibial slope in relation to ACL (graft) force and knee kinematics were included.

Results: Data of 43 studies were included. The studies reported that high-volume medial and lateral meniscectomies, peripheral meniscus tears, medial meniscus ramp tears, lateral meniscus root tears, posterolateral corner injuries, medial collateral ligament tears, increased tibial slope, and valgus and varus alignment were reported to have a significant impact on ACL (graft) force and related knee kinematics.

Conclusions: This systematic review on biomechanical cadaver studies provides a rationale to systematically identify and treat pathologies in ACL-injured knees, because when undiagnosed or left untreated, these specific concomitant pathologies could lead to ACL graft overload in both primary and revision ACL-reconstructed knees.

Clinical relevance: it is necessary that orthopaedic surgeons who treat ACL-injured knees understand the surgically relevant biomechanical consequences of additional pathologies and use this knowledge to optimize treatment in ACL-injured patients.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / surgery
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries* / surgery
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Cadaver
  • Humans
  • Knee Injuries*
  • Knee Joint / surgery
  • Menisci, Tibial / surgery