Designing Nutritious and Sustainable Biscuits Using Upcycled Fibre-Rich Ingredients Obtained by Hot Air - Microwave Drying of Orange by-Products

Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2022 Jun;77(2):271-278. doi: 10.1007/s11130-022-00972-5. Epub 2022 May 28.


Circular use of resources implies developing mild processes to transform food by-products into value-added products, without using organic solvents or extensive washing and drying steps. Refined ingredients are commonly used in gluten-free bakery resulting in high levels of saturated fatty acids and sugars as well as a lack of essential nutrients like dietary fibres. The objective of this study was (i) to compare the nutritional composition and the water retention capacity (WRC) of an upcycled orange fibre dried by hot air combined with microwave (HAD+MW) and a commercial orange fibre obtained by different methods (COM), and (ii) to compare the nutritional, texture and sensory profile of gluten-free biscuits formulated with HAD+MW and with COM fibres. The total dietary fibre content (72.0 ± 3.0%) and WRC (21.1 ± 2.7 gwater/ g) of HAD+MW fibre did not differ from the nutritional composition of the control orange fibre (COM). However, for HAD+MW fibre, protein (+2.34 fold), fat (-4.75 fold), ash (-2.31 fold), sugars (-1.42 fold) and moisture content (+11.5 fold) was different from COM. Instrumental texture analysis showed that biscuits with HAD+MW fiber resulted in less hardness (26%) than those with COM fiber. However, this difference was not perceived by panellists (p > 0.05). Exterior colour, cereal, vanilla and citrus aroma-flavour, and granularity were slightly more intense in HAD+MW biscuits but still similar to the commercial control fiber. Thus, the HAD+MW drying method can be used for upcycling orange by-products, obtaining less refined and more nutritious and sustainable ingredients for fiber-enrichment of gluten-free biscuits.

Keywords: Dietary fiber; Gluten-free biscuits; Microwave; Orange by-products; Upcycling.

MeSH terms

  • Citrus sinensis*
  • Dietary Fiber / analysis
  • Microwaves
  • Nutritive Value
  • Sugars
  • Water / analysis


  • Dietary Fiber
  • Sugars
  • Water