Prevalence, mutational spectrum and clinical implications of clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential in plasma cell dyscrasias

Semin Oncol. 2022 Dec;49(6):465-475. doi: 10.1053/j.seminoncol.2022.11.001. Epub 2022 Dec 1.


Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is common both in healthy individuals and patients with hematological cancers. Recent studies have showed worse prognosis for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma undergoing stem cell transplant, that have concomitant presence of CHIP. Data regarding the clinical and biological role of CHIP in plasma cell dyscrasias (PCDs) is rapidly increasing. However, the prevalence and prognostic implication of CHIP in patients with MM outside of the transplant setting, and in those with other more indolent PCDs remains elusive. Here we explored the prevalence and clinical implications of CHIP detected through next-generation sequencing in 209 patients with PCDs including MM, light chain (AL) amyloidosis (ALA), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM). To avoid attributing the mutations to the plasma cell clone, CHIP was defined as the presence of DNMT3A, TET2, or ASXL1 mutations in the peripheral blood or bone marrow (DTA-CH). The prevalence of DTA-CH was 19% in patients with PCDs, with no difference between each PCD. TET2 (23%) and DNMT3A (22%), were the most frequently mutated genes. DTA-CH correlated with older age in MM (P = .001) and MGUS/SMM (P = 0.0007), as well as with coronary artery disease or congestive heart failure in MM (P = .03). DTA-CH did not predict worse OS or PFS in either MM or ALA, nor it predict higher risk of progression to MM in patients with MGUS/SMM. Our results overall further elucidate the prevalence and mutational spectrum of CHIP in PCDs, providing more information regarding the clinical relevance of CHIP in this patient population.

Keywords: Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential; Light chain amyloidosis; MGUS; Multiple myeloma; Next-generation sequencing; Smoldering multiple myeloma.

MeSH terms

  • Clonal Hematopoiesis
  • Humans
  • Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance*
  • Multiple Myeloma*
  • Mutation
  • Paraproteinemias* / genetics
  • Paraproteinemias* / pathology
  • Prevalence
  • Smoldering Multiple Myeloma*