Successful Treatment of Balamuthia mandrillaris Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis with Nitroxoline

Emerg Infect Dis. 2023 Jan;29(1):197-201. doi: 10.3201/eid2901.221531.


A patient in California, USA, with rare and usually fatal Balamuthia mandrillaris granulomatous amebic encephalitis survived after receiving treatment with a regimen that included the repurposed drug nitroxoline. Nitroxoline, which is a quinolone typically used to treat urinary tract infections, was identified in a screen for drugs with amebicidal activity against Balamuthia.

Keywords: Balamuthia mandrillaris; Infectious encephalitis; ameba; ameba drug effects; granulomatous amebic encephalitis; meningitis/encephalitis; nitroxoline; parasites.

MeSH terms

  • Amebiasis* / drug therapy
  • Balamuthia mandrillaris*
  • Brain
  • Granuloma
  • Humans
  • Infectious Encephalitis*


  • nitroxoline