A photoaffinity ATP ligand is used to identify the protein kinase present in acetylcholine receptor-enriched membranes from Torpedo californica. Incubation of these membranes with 8-azido-[alpha-32P]ATP and subsequent irradiation with UV light resulted in covalent labeling of a major band of Mr 43,000. Alkali-stripped membranes that show a selective reduction in the Mr 43,000 polypeptide also show a corresponding reduction in incorporation of photoaffinity label. In addition, the neutralized alkaline extract also showed one band at Mr 43,000 when labeled with the photoaffinity ligand. After alkali extraction, endogenous protein kinase activity decreased in the membranes in proportion to the loss of Mr 43,000 peptide. Moreover, the alkaline extract was able to phosphorylate casein in an exogenous assay system. These results suggest that a Mr 43,000 polypeptide in acetylcholine receptor-enriched membranes is the acetylcholine receptor kinase.