Jamaica ginger paralysis. Forty-seven-year follow-up

Arch Neurol. 1978 Aug;35(8):530-2. doi: 10.1001/archneur.1978.00500320050011.


In 1930, thousands of Americans were poisoned by an illicit extract of Jamaica ginger ("jake") used to circumvent the Prohibition laws. A neurotoxic organophosphate compound, triorthocresyl phosphate (TOCP), had been used as an adulterant. The earliest reports were of peripheral neuritis, but later it was evident that an upper motor neuron syndrome had supervened. This TOCP poisoning apparently involved various cell groups and tracts in the spinal cord; the lesions was not peripheral at all. We interviewed 11 survivors of the illness residing in eastern Tennessee. Four were carefully examined. The principal findings showed the spasticity and abnormal reflexes of an upper motor neuron syndrome. One patient had mild disease, despite typical findings, and had lived a normal life.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Alcoholic Beverages*
  • Cresols / poisoning*
  • Drug Contamination
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gait
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Motor Neurons / drug effects
  • Muscle Spasticity / chemically induced*
  • Organophosphorus Compounds / administration & dosage
  • Plant Extracts*
  • Polyneuropathies / chemically induced
  • Reflex, Abnormal / chemically induced
  • Tritolyl Phosphates / administration & dosage
  • Tritolyl Phosphates / poisoning*


  • Cresols
  • Organophosphorus Compounds
  • Plant Extracts
  • Tritolyl Phosphates