During a retrospective multicentric study of the encountered congenital pathology of the diaphragmatic domes, we focused our special attention on the prevalence of the congenital Bochdalek hernia. 140 charts were statistically analysed. The seriousness of the medical and surgical emergency situation enticed the authors to examine the most important prognostic clinical features. The interval between diagnosis and surgical therapy should be as short as possible. Respiratory acidosis and resuscitation were a common denomination in all infants who succumbed in the post-operative period. The early occurrence (less than 6 hrs) of respiratory distress disclosed the seriousness of the associated pulmonary hypoplasia. Surgical technical problems were rare. This in contrast to the struggle against pulmonary arterial and capillary hypertension. Pulmonary vasodilator drugs have not convinced those who initiated their use.