Accurate localization of organ representation areas on the feet & hands using the bi-digital O-ring test resonance phenomenon: its clinical implication in diagnosis & treatment--Part I

Acupunct Electrother Res. 1994 Jun-Sep;19(2-3):153-90. doi: 10.3727/036012994816357286.


Accuracy of the widely used organ representation areas, currently used in different schools of foot and hand reflexology was evaluated using Bi-Digital O-Ring test resonance phenomenon. Our previous study indicated that mapping organ representation areas of the tongue using Bi-Digital O-Ring Test resonance phenomenon between 2 identical substances often provided more reliable clinical information for both diagnosis and treatment than the 2 widely used, but crude, traditional schools of Chinese tongue diagnosis. This same method was applied for the mapping of the organ representation areas on the feet and hands. We succeeded in mapping the following areas on human feet: 1) Middle (3rd) toe on the sole side represents the following starting from the tip: A) Head, B) Face with eye, ear, nose, and mouth (1st Digit) C) Neck and organs within the neck (narrow band of space between 1st crease after the 1st digit and crease at the junction of the beginning of the sole); 2) 2nd and 4th toe represent upper extremities, the beginning tip being fingers and hands. The crease at the base of these toes represents the shoulder. The 2nd toe represents right upper extremity, and the 4th toe represents left upper extremity; 3) 1st and 5th toes in both the right and left feet represent lower extremities with the tip being the toes and soles of feet. The crease at the base of these toes represents the inguinal area. The 1st toe of each foot represents right lower extremity, and 5th toe represents left lower extremity. The sole of the foot is divided into the following 3 distinctive sections. 1) Upper (1st) section represents organs in the chest cavity including 2 thymus glands, trachea, 2 lungs, with the heart between them, and with the esophagus appearing as a narrow band outside of the lung near and below the 1st and 2nd toe depending upon the individual. Chest section occupies the first 1/3 to 1/5 (on a relatively long foot) of the entire sole. The boundary between the chest and G.I. system can be approximately estimated by extending the length of the entire toe or up to 25% longer to the sole, but it can be accurately determined using a diaphragm tissue microscope slide as a reference control substance. 2) Middle (2nd) section represents Gastro-Intestinal system, including lower end of the esophagus, liver, stomach, spleen, gall bladder, pancreas, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, appendix, colon, and anus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

MeSH terms

  • Acupuncture Points
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Diagnosis
  • Female
  • Foot*
  • Hand*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Massage / methods
  • Medicine, Chinese Traditional*
  • Middle Aged