The product of the tobacco mosaic virus resistance gene N: similarity to toll and the interleukin-1 receptor

Cell. 1994 Sep 23;78(6):1101-15. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(94)90283-6.


The products of plant disease resistance genes are postulated to recognize invading pathogens and rapidly trigger host defense responses. Here we describe isolation of the resistance gene N of tobacco that mediates resistance to the viral pathogen tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The N gene was isolated by transposon tagging using the maize Activator transposon. A genomic DNA fragment containing the N gene conferred TMV resistance to TMV susceptible tobacco. Sequence analysis of the N gene shows that it encodes a protein of 131.4 kDa with an amino-terminal domain similar to that of the cytoplasmic domain of the Drosophila Toll protein and the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) in mammals, a nucleotide-binding site (NBS), and 14 [corrected] imperfect leucine-rich repeats (LRR). The sequence similarity of N, Toll, and IL-1R suggests that N mediates rapid gene induction and TMV resistance through a Toll-IL-1-like pathway.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Base Sequence
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • DNA, Complementary / genetics
  • Drosophila Proteins*
  • Genes, Plant / genetics*
  • Genetic Complementation Test
  • Genomic Library
  • Immunity, Innate / genetics
  • Insect Hormones / genetics
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics
  • Models, Genetic
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutagenesis, Insertional
  • Nicotiana / genetics*
  • Plant Diseases / genetics*
  • Plant Proteins / genetics*
  • Plants, Genetically Modified
  • Plants, Toxic*
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics
  • Receptors, Interleukin-1 / genetics
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Signal Transduction
  • Tobacco Mosaic Virus / pathogenicity*
  • Toll-Like Receptors
  • Virus Diseases / genetics


  • DNA, Complementary
  • Drosophila Proteins
  • Insect Hormones
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • N protein, Nicotiana glutinosa
  • Plant Proteins
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • Receptors, Interleukin-1
  • Tl protein, Drosophila
  • Toll-Like Receptors

Associated data

  • GENBANK/U15605