Shortly after his election in 1992, President Clinton appointed a health care reform task force to develop a proposal for providing health care benefits for all American citizens and legal residents. Between February and May 1993 the Interdepartmental Working Group, composed of more than 30 working groups addressing specific health care issues, prepared options for the task force. The Health Security Act was introduced in November 1993. Besides universal coverage and a basic benefit package, provisions included health insurance reform, regional alliances for structuring competition among health insurance plans, consumer choice of health plans, and provisions for Medicaid beneficiaries. Proposed mental health and substance abuse provisions included coverage of intensive nonresidential services, medical management, evaluation and assessment services, and case management. Initial limitations on coverage of inpatient mental health services and psychotherapy would be removed by 2001. The Clinton plan also called for integration of public mental health and substance abuse services into the full range of health services offered by local health plans. Major issues that will have to be resolved if health care legislation is to be enacted include whether regional alliances should be mandatory and whether employers should be required to contribute to insurance premiums.