FLOG: a system to select 'quasi-flexible' ligands complementary to a receptor of known three-dimensional structure

J Comput Aided Mol Des. 1994 Apr;8(2):153-74. doi: 10.1007/BF00119865.


We present a system, FLOG (Flexible Ligands Oriented on Grid), that searches a database of 3D coordinates to find molecules complementary to a macromolecular receptor of known 3D structure. The philosophy of FLOG is similar to that reported for DOCK [Shoichet, B.K. et al., J. Comput. Chem., 13 (1992) 380]. In common with that system, we use a match center representation of the volume of the binding cavity and we use a clique-finding algorithm to generate trial orientations of each candidate ligand in the binding site. Also we use a grid representation of the receptor to assess the fit of each orientation. We have introduced a number of novel features within this paradigm. First, we address ligand flexibility by including up to 25 explicit conformations of each structure in our databases. Nonhydrogen atoms in each database entry are assigned one of seven atom types (anion, cation, donor, acceptor, polar, hydrophobic and other) based on their local bonded chemical environments. Second, we have devised a new grid-based scoring function compatible with this 'heavy atom' representation of the ligands. This includes several potentials (electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic and van der Waals) calculated from the location of the receptor atoms. Third, we have improved the fitting stage of the search. Initial dockings are generated with a more efficient clique-finding algorithm. This new algorithm includes the concept of 'essential points', match centers that must be paired with a ligand atom. Also, we introduce the use of a rapid simplex-based rigid-body optimizer to refine the orientations. We demonstrate, using dihydrofolate reductase as a sample receptor, that the FLOG system can select known inhibitors from a large database of drug-like compounds.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Binding Sites
  • Computer Graphics
  • Databases, Factual*
  • Folic Acid Antagonists / chemistry*
  • Folic Acid Antagonists / pharmacology
  • Hydrogen Bonding
  • Ligands*
  • Models, Molecular*
  • Molecular Conformation
  • Protein Conformation
  • Software
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase / chemistry*


  • Folic Acid Antagonists
  • Ligands
  • Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase