Polar lipids of a non-alkaliphilic extremely halophilic archaebacterium strain 172: a novel bis-sulfated glycolipid

Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Aug 25;1214(1):97-108. doi: 10.1016/0005-2760(94)90014-0.


Extremely halophilic archaebacteria which require high salt concentrations for growth and survival contain glycerol diether analogues of phospholipids and sulfated glycolipids as major membrane polar lipids. A non-alkaliphilic, non-pigmented rod-shaped extreme halophile, isolated from sea sand in Japan and designated 'strain 172', was found to contain two phospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylglyceromethylphosphate (PGP-Me), derived from both C20-C20- and C20-C25-glycerol diethers, and a novel major glycolipid (designated SGL-X). This glycolipid has been identified as a bis-sulfated diglycosyl C20-C20- or C20-C25-glycerol diether, on the basis of its TLC mobility, positive-staining behavior with sugar and sulfate-staining reagents, its mole ratio sulfate/glycolipid = 2.2, and by spectrometric analysis (IR and FAB-MS) of the intact and the desulfated SGL-X. The sugars were identified as mannose and glucose, after acid hydrolysis of SGL-X, by paper chromatography of the free sugars and GC-MS of the derivatized sugars (alditol acetates). Permethylation analysis and 1H- and 13C-NMR analysis established the position and configuration of the sugar linkages and the positions of the sulfate groups. The final structure of SGL-X (now designated S2-DGD-1) is proposed to be: 2,3-diphytanyl- or phytanyl-sesterterpenyl-1-[2,6-(HSO3)2-alpha-Manp-1--> 2- Glcp]-sn-glycerol. This lipid is the first bis-sulfated glycolipid to be reported in extremely halophilic archaebacteria, and is the first in the biosphere that possesses two sulfate groups attached to the same monosaccaride.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Archaea / chemistry*
  • Carbohydrate Conformation
  • Carbohydrate Sequence
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Glucose / analysis
  • Glycolipids / analysis*
  • Glycolipids / chemistry
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Mannose / analysis
  • Methylation
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Phosphatidylglycerols / analysis
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment
  • Spectrophotometry, Infrared


  • Glycolipids
  • Phosphatidylglycerols
  • phosphatidylglycerophosphate
  • sulfoglycolipids
  • Glucose
  • Mannose