Hyperbaric oxygen therapy provided in specially designed pressure chambers is currently the treatment of choice for decompression sickness, arterial gas embolism, and serious carbon monoxide poisoning. It is an important adjunct in the treatment of gas gangrene, chronic osteomyelitis, radiation injury, and indolent wounds. The potential benefit in the treatment of thermal burns is not well appreciated. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may significantly reduce morbidity, mortality, and cost of care. The application of this technology based on the demonstrated beneficial effects on the pathophysiology of the burn wound merits consideration in selected patients.