Congenital livedo reticularis and recurrent stroke-like episodes

Dev Med Child Neurol. 1993 Oct;35(10):917-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.1993.tb11569.x.


Three children with pronounced livedo reticularis present since birth (cutis marmorata-telangiectasia congenita) have been followed to the ages of eight, 17 and 21 years. During childhood they developed frequent recurrent transient stroke-like hemipareses, affecting either side of the body, associated with ipsilateral pain, headache, visual symptoms, dysphasia, fits and confusion. Intellectual failure and, in one, progressive spasticity have followed. Attacks were more frequent in winter. Other problems have included abnormal peripheral vascular responses to temperature change, gastro-intestinal bleeding, glaucoma, local tissue hypertrophy and, in the two older patients, renal involvement with hypertension. Their condition represents a form of congenital vasculopathy. Anticonvulsants, anti-migraine agents, anti-platelet drugs and flunarizine have been ineffective. Nifedipine prevented further attacks in one patient and reduced attacks in another, but has not helped the third child. Adequate clothing and warmth may also be important.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Angiomatosis / congenital*
  • Angiomatosis / epidemiology
  • Brain Diseases / diagnosis
  • Brain Diseases / epidemiology
  • Child
  • Comorbidity
  • Electroencephalography
  • Female
  • Hemiplegia / diagnosis
  • Hemiplegia / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Skin Diseases, Vascular / congenital*
  • Skin Diseases, Vascular / diagnosis
  • Skin Diseases, Vascular / epidemiology
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed