Infectious keratoconjunctivitis in free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from Zion National Park, Utah

J Wildl Dis. 1996 Apr;32(2):326-30. doi: 10.7589/0090-3558-32.2.326.


An epizootic of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IK) was studied opportunistically in free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from Zion National Park, Utah (USA), from November 1992 to March 1994. Moraxella sp. and Chlamydia sp. were isolated from the conjunctiva of two of seven deer. In addition, Thelazia californiensis occurred on the conjunctivas of six of seven deer. Based on field observations, adults appeared to be affected clinically at a higher incidence during both years as opposed to juveniles. Corneal opacity was the most apparent clinical sign from 1992 to 1993. However, in the following year, blepharospasm and epiphora were noted more often. We were also able to document the clinical recovery of three affected deer. In addition, Moraxella sp. was recovered from the eyes of a clinically unaffected deer 1 year after the epizootic occurred.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chlamydia / isolation & purification
  • Chlamydia Infections / epidemiology
  • Chlamydia Infections / veterinary*
  • Conjunctiva / microbiology
  • Deer*
  • Disease Outbreaks / veterinary
  • Female
  • Keratoconjunctivitis, Infectious / epidemiology*
  • Male
  • Moraxella / isolation & purification*
  • Neisseriaceae Infections / epidemiology
  • Neisseriaceae Infections / veterinary*
  • Prevalence
  • Spirurida Infections / epidemiology
  • Spirurida Infections / veterinary*
  • Thelazioidea / isolation & purification*
  • Utah / epidemiology