Cidofovir is a nucleotide analogue which inhibits viral DNA polymerase and is effective against human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. It is phosphorylated to its active form by cellular enzymes. With the long intracellular half-life of its metabolites, cidofovir can be administered weekly during induction and every other week during maintenance therapy. Viral resistance has not been documented in patients treated with cidofovir to date, but has developed in vitro. Immediate cidofovir therapy delayed progression of CMV retinitis compared with deferred treatment in patients with AIDS. Cidofovir also delayed the progression of CMV retinitis relapsing after previous treatment. To avoid nephrotoxicity, probenecid and intravenous saline hydration must be administered with each dose of cidofovir.