Serum vitamin B12 levels in young vegans who eat brown rice

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1995 Dec;41(6):587-94. doi: 10.3177/jnsv.41.587.


A nutritional analysis was conducted on the dietary intake of a group of 6 vegan children aged 7 to 14 who had been living on a vegan diet including brown rice for from 4 to 10 years, and on that of an age-matched control group. In addition, their serum vitamin B12 levels and other data (red blood cell count, hematocrit, hemoglobin, etc.) were determined in the laboratory. In vegans' diets, 2-4 g of nori (dried laver), which contained B12, were consumed daily. Not a single case of symptoms due to B12 deficiency was found. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to any of the examination data, including B12 levels (p < 0.05). Therefore, consumption of nori may keep vegans from suffering B12 deficiency.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Diet, Vegetarian*
  • Energy Intake
  • Erythrocyte Count
  • Female
  • Hematocrit
  • Hemoglobins / analysis
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Oryza*
  • Seaweed
  • Vitamin B 12 / blood*


  • Hemoglobins
  • Vitamin B 12