The proximal promoter region of the gene encoding human 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 contains GATA, AP-2, and Sp1 response elements: analysis of promoter function in choriocarcinoma cells

Endocrinology. 1997 Aug;138(8):3417-25. doi: 10.1210/endo.138.8.5329.


The 5'-flanking region from -78 to +9 in the HSD17B1 gene serves as a promoter, and an HSD17B1 silencer element is located in position -113 to -78. In the present studies, we have characterized three regulatory elements in the proximal 5'-flanking regions of the gene, using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and reporter gene analysis. First, nuclear factors recognized by antibodies against Sp1 and Sp3 were found to bind the Sp1 motif in the region from -52 to -43. Mutation of the Sp1-binding site decreased the promoter activity to 30% in JEG-3 cells and to 60% in JAR cells, suggesting that binding to the Sp1 motif has a substantial role in the complete functioning of the HSD17B1 promoter. Second, the binding of AP-2 to its motif in the region from -62 to -53 led to reduced binding of Sp1 and Sp3, and furthermore, mutation of the AP-2 element increased promoter activity to 260% in JEG-3 cells. The data thus implied that AP-2 can repress the function of the HSD17B1 promoter by preventing binding to the Sp1 motif. Finally, GATA factors, GATA-3 in particular, were demonstrated to bind their cognate sequence in the HSD17B1 silencer region, and mutations introduced into the GATA-binding site increased transcriptional activity to the level seen in constructs not containing the silencer element. Thus, GATA-3 seems to prevent transcription in the constructs, and hence, the GATA motif also may operate as a negative control element for HSD17B1 transcription.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Choriocarcinoma / genetics*
  • Choriocarcinoma / pathology
  • Choriocarcinoma / physiopathology
  • DNA, Neoplasm / analysis
  • DNA, Neoplasm / chemistry
  • DNA, Neoplasm / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • GATA2 Transcription Factor
  • GATA3 Transcription Factor
  • Gene Deletion
  • Genes, Reporter / genetics
  • Humans
  • Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases / genetics*
  • Plasmids
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics*
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / physiology*
  • Sp1 Transcription Factor / genetics*
  • Trans-Activators / genetics*
  • Transcription Factor AP-2
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • DNA, Neoplasm
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • GATA2 Transcription Factor
  • GATA2 protein, human
  • GATA3 Transcription Factor
  • GATA3 protein, human
  • Sp1 Transcription Factor
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transcription Factor AP-2
  • Transcription Factors
  • Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases
  • 3(17)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase