The effectiveness of long-term supplementation of carbohydrate, chromium, fibre and caffeine on weight maintenance

Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997 Dec;21(12):1143-51. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0800528.


Objective: To investigate whether supplementation of carbohydrate, chromium, dietary fibre and caffeine is effective for maintenance of weight-loss in the long-term.

Design: A longitudinal, double-blind, randomly assigned intervention study of 16 months with supplementation of either 50g of carbohydrates (CHO), 200 micrograms chromium-picolinate (Cr-Pic), 20g of soluble fibre plus 100 mg caffeine (CHO+) or 50g of plain CHO, for 16 months besides a very low energy diet (VLED) during the first two months.

Subjects: Thirty-three female obese subjects (age, 34.8 +/- 7.0 y; body weight (BW): 85.5 +/- 10.0 kg; body mass index (BMI) 31.2 +/- 3.7 kg.m-2) participated, 13 subjects were supplemented with CHO+, 11 subjects were supplemented with CHO and 9 subjects served as a control group.

Measurements: SW, body composition, energy intake and blood parameters were measured before the VLED (0), after the VLED at 2 months (2), and at 4, 10 and 16 months.

Results: The amount and course of relapse of BW was equal for the supplemented and control groups. The average regain at 16 months (the weight gained as a percentage of the total weight loss during the VLED) was 66.1 +/- 81.2%, and was not different between the groups. No differences in body composition were found between the groups at 16 months. The CHO supplements resulted in significantly elevated energy percentage (En %) intake of CHO daily, in both supplemented groups, although this did not result in less regain. Pearson correlation analysis for all subjects revealed that the more fat consumed, the more regain was found at 16 months (r = 0.41, P < 0.05). A high CHO consumption was correlated with less regain (r = -0.40, P = 0.05). Furthermore, chromium intake did not result in significant changes in blood parameters and body composition.

Conclusion: Although additional supplementation of CHO, chromium, dietary fibre and caffeine intake did not affect BW, the En % CHO daily was increased significantly. Our results indicate that a high En% intake of CHO and a low En% intake of fat daily is beneficial for prevention of weight regain.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Body Composition / physiology
  • Body Weight / drug effects*
  • Body Weight / physiology
  • Caffeine / pharmacology*
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Chromium / pharmacology*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / pharmacology*
  • Dietary Fiber / pharmacology*
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Energy Intake / physiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Longitudinal Studies


  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Insulin
  • Chromium
  • Caffeine
  • Cholesterol