The stimulatory G protein alpha subunit Gsalpha binds within a cleft in adenylyl cyclase formed by the alpha1-alpha2 and alpha3-beta4 loops of the C2 domain. The pseudosymmetry of the C1 and C2 domains of adenylyl cyclase suggests that the homologous inhibitory alpha subunit Gialpha could bind to the analogous cleft within C1. We demonstrate that myristoylated guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate-Gialpha1 forms a stable complex with the C1 (but not the C2) domain of type V adenylyl cyclase. Mutagenesis of the membrane-bound enzyme identified residues whose alteration either increased or substantially decreased the IC50 for inhibition by Gialpha1. These mutations suggest binding of Gialpha within the cleft formed by the alpha2 and alpha3 helices of C1, analogous to the Gsalpha binding site in C2. Adenylyl cyclase activity reconstituted by mixture of the C1 and C2 domains of type V adenylyl cyclase was also inhibited by Gialpha. The C1b domain of the type V enzyme contributed to affinity for Gialpha, but the source of C2 had little effect. Mutations in this soluble system faithfully reflected the phenotypes observed with the membrane-bound enzyme. The pseudosymmetrical structure of adenylyl cyclase permits bidirectional regulation of activity by homologous G protein alpha subunits.