Antibodies to human adhesion molecules and von Willebrand factor: in vitro cross-species reactivity in the xenotransplantation setting

Xenotransplantation. 1998 Nov;5(4):284-91. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3089.1998.tb00039.x.


Endothelial cell activation is thought to play an important role in xenograft rejection through cell retraction and expression of pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory factors. Identification of antibodies recognizing porcine endothelial molecules would be useful to study and manipulate the inflammatory response to a xenograft. The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-reactivity of antibodies directed against human adhesion molecules and von Willebrand factor (vWF). Binding of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against human CD3 1, CD44, CD49, CD54, CD62E, CD102, and CD106 was evaluated on resting and activated endothelial cells from human and pig by flow cytometry. Among 30 antibodies tested, 4 were shown to react with pig cells. Two of them, directed against human CD62E (E-selectin) and rabbit CD106 (VCAM-1) reacted strongly with activated and/or resting pig cells, whereas two others, directed to human CD31 (PECAM) and CD44 (H-CAM), bound weakly to pig cells. In addition, we analyzed the cross-reactivity of five polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies to human or pig vWF with human, baboon, rhesus, pig, and rat vWF. Binding of antibodies was tested by ELISA by using platelet lysates as source of vWF from the different species. Four anti-human or porcine vWF antibodies exhibited a broad reactivity with vWF from all species, whereas one anti-human vWF antibody was specific for primate vWF. In this study, we identified a small number of cross-reacting antibodies that may prove useful to study in vitro and in vivo xenogeneic responses. However, the weak antibody cross-reactivity observed with most porcine molecules points out the necessity of producing species-specific antibodies to study the immune response to xenografts or for use as specific immunosuppressive therapeutic reagents.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antigens, CD / immunology*
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules / immunology*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cross Reactions
  • E-Selectin / immunology
  • Endothelium, Vascular / cytology
  • Endothelium, Vascular / immunology*
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / immunology
  • Rabbits
  • Rats
  • Saphenous Vein
  • Swine
  • Transplantation, Heterologous / immunology*
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 / immunology
  • von Willebrand Factor / immunology*


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antigens, CD
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • E-Selectin
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
  • von Willebrand Factor
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1